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Overview IoT is vast concept and it consist of a wide range of technologies, same is true when it comes to protocol, at a glance there is no specific answer for standard IoT protocol. However if we dig it a little deeper, probably we will be in better position to answer such questions. IoT Protocols Before we explore protocol side of IoT we have to know about the main concern of IoT the **low resources**!. Small, tiny IoT hardware like sensors, switches and controllers running on batteries, does not possess enough processing power, ram or energy to communicate and process the regular internet protocols which are built for high end computers, to address such issues IoT devices have to use only those protocols which are resource and energy efficient. There is no one protocol which can single handledly make a difference when it comes to efficiency. But IoT have to use multiple protocols to address each networking layer (TCP/IP model or OSI model) Following a list of most commonly used IoT protocols as per existing architectural model like TCP model, We have broken the protocols into the following layers in order to provide some kind of organization. 1. Application Layer 2. Transport Layer 3. Internet Layer 4. Physical / Link Layer Application Protocols As a developer the important protocol to discuss are the application protocol and the communication protocol. MQTT(Message queuing telemetry transport) MQTT is a machine to machine(M2M) “internet of things” connectivity protocol. It was designed as an extremely lightweight publish/subscribe protocol, just like twitter. You can subscribe to some topics and publish to others. It is useful for commmunication with remote location where a small amount of footprint is required and bandwidth is premium. For example it is very useful for mobile applications due to small size, low power consumption and efficient distribution of information between receivers. Furthermore, you can also configure the protocol to be more reliable by guaranteeing delivery. CoAP A specialized web transfer protocol to be used with constrained node and networks in the internet of things(IoT). It was designed to provide the machine to machine applications like smart energy and building automation. It is designed to easily translate to HTTP in order to provide the simplified integration with web, with also the added feature of multicast suuport, low overhead and simplicity. It can either utilize the proxy server or can also directly communicate with specialized server designed to use CoAP, under certain environment conditions. It efficiently fullfills the need of an extremely lightweight protocol and the ability for a permanent connection. Transport Layer UDP UDP is an alternative communication protocol for establishing low latency and less tolerating connections between applications on the internet. It has two distinct features firstly it has port numbers to distinguish different user requests and a checksum also to verify that the data arrived is intact or not. DTLS DTLS is a derivation of SSL protocol. It provides the same security services (integrity, authentification and confidentiality) but under UDP protocol. DTLS is implemented by several projects including CyaSSL and the OpenSSL project Internet Layer 6LoWPAN 6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. It is an adaption layer for IPv6 over IEEE802.15.4 links. This protocol operates only in the 2.4 GHz frequency range with 250 kbps transfer rate." Physical / Link Layer NFC Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless connectivity standard (Ecma-340, ISO/IEC 18092) that uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between devices when they're touched together, or brought within a few centimeters of each other. Zigbee Zibee is an open global standard for wireless communication designe to use low power digital radio signals for wireless communication. It operates on 2.4 ISM GHz and its most self describing feature is the use of 128-bit AES. It is based on IEEE standard 802.15.4 LoRa LoRa is a Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) specification intended for wireless battery operated Things in a regional, national or global network. LoRa targets key requirements of Internet of Things such as secure bi-directional communication, mobility and localization services. Bluetooth LE Bluetooth LE or Bluetooth Smart is a wireless personal area network technology aimed at novel applications in the healthcare, fitness, beacons, security, and home entertainment industries. Conclusion As a being developer our concern is the applplication layer protocols which are MQTT and CoAP, Where MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M)/"Internet of Things" connectivity protocol accepted as standard by Advancing Open Standards For The Information Society. And where as the CoAP is a specialized web transfer protocol for use with constrained nodes and constrained networks in the Internet of Things. The protocol is designed for machine-to-machine (M2M) applications such as smart energy and building automation. And CoAP is a being standardized by The Internet Engineering Task Force. To conclude I can say that on Application layer of OSI model / TCP model there are only two standard protocols for IoT CoAP, and MQTT and any thing other then that including XML, Rest or APIs will be considered as vendor specific. Further it worth to note that even MQTT was developed by some private organization but has been adopted by big IoT players like Google, Azure ( Microsoft) and Amazon. However at the other end CoAP was standardized by standard body i.e IETF and especially designed for resource-constrained environments, and its HTTP like approach make it better candidate for future IoT development.
Piracy has been a big dilemma in third world countries and Pakistan is not short of Piracy by any means. In 2008, software piracy rate in Pakistan was around 86% and the commercial value of unlicensed software in Pakistan was 278 million US dollars. Now in 2017, installations of unlicensed software on personal computers (PC) in Pakistan fell by 6 percent i.e. from 86% to 80% per cent but still commercial value of this illegal software activity amounted to $261.32 million. The most common way people in developing economies engage in software piracy is to buy a single legal copy of a program and then install it on multiple computers. This year’s survey also found that one per cent of business decision-makers in developing markets believed that this is a legal practice. There is almost no check on selling pirated software in our markets. Reason of this Piracy in Pakistan is that: In emerging countries like Pakistan, end users cannot afford genuine software as the original price of the software might be equal to their one month’s salary. What companies need to realize that they cannot charge the same amount in every part of the world, what they would be in the United States because in most places, it is just not something people can spend their salaries upon. Vendor companies have not worked on analysis of individual countries including economic conditions and purchase power of the end user. Technology and software are now a days like food and drinks which means they are essential for humans. But when vendors carries out same prices around the globe without considering purchasing power of different areas then obvious result would come in the shape of Piracy. Piracy may be directly stealing from the company that created the content, but there is no denying the fact that it becomes legal and of a necessity when it costs more for most people to actually buy it than run their homes. That is why it becomes practice to use pirated software and piracy is no more treated as illegal by the consumers as well as small and medium size business organization also Government has failed to implement the sufficient actions against piracy. The issue of reducing software piracy has much broader implication for a developing economy such as Pakistan. By reducing software piracy, government cannot only increase employment and tax revenues, but can also stimulate the local IT industry by ensuring IT entrepreneurs are rewarded for their efforts. In third world countries , you will find Pirated software in Educational and IT Institutions too where you will find students are getting trained on Pirated software, even major software vendors ignore these practices deliberately even some of them themselves promote pirated software in third world countries in order to have skilled professionals those will further promote their products and services in organization where they will be employed however whenever a business organization flourish, these vendors impose restrictions and carries crackdown on the organizations with the help of the government agencies and force them to buy their software. Ever since the dawn of commercial software, piracy has been a problem without a realistic solution that meets the needs of both the software vendor and the end user. From serial keys to outright DRM (digital rights management) schemes, the software industry has left no preventive measure untried. Some software companies by contrast, have opted to step out of the DRM minefield altogether as it was a perceived irritation to their customers. Due to the overall negative reaction from many end users with regard to DRM, a number of open source advocates have pointed out that if software companies simply adopted one of the many open source licenses, the need to concern themselves with anti-piracy efforts becomes completely unneeded.
In Pakistan, there is a growing trend that major Organizations and Companies has shifted and are planning to shift towards Open Source ERP solutions for their Businesses. This is because of being a part of International shift which erupted in the last decade as there has been a significant change in the preferences of the International Big Companies towards the open source ERP Solutions. Today nearly 78% of the corporate businesses run some kind of open source solution. According to the “2015 Future of Open Source Survey”, the use of open source solutions has doubled since 2010, and 67% of the organizations with more than 5000 employees participate in open source software projects. The open source has become a default approach for software. Today, nearly 66% on the companies consider open source solutions before any proprietary software alternative. So now comes the big question: Why corporate companies prefer an Open Source ERP Solution? Answer is: 1- Affordability and Savings Open source are free solutions under free license. Using an open source ERP solution will save you a lot of money in the long run. Take into consideration no licensing fees or software maintenance cost and you should be able to visualize how much money you can save. You also get access to open source databases and operating system which further indirectly reduces the cost of licensing. Again if you face the need to hire available consultants and programmers - not free but with a significantly lesser fee. 2- Innovations and Customizations Open source makes it easier to innovate and customize software solutions to your business processes and needs, using global best practices. Business software technology is still a complex tool, and not every company has the time and internal IT resources, or the programming background, to tackle it. Well-heeled community-minded open source vendors typically include internal custom development teams who are subject matter experts with the skills to analyze your needs and deliver a high-value solution, on-time and on-budget. 3- Adaptability Open source is not tied to any one individual vendor. The open source development model allows software to adapt quickly to changing times, to evolve as the industry does. 4- Community Open source has the power to build communities of passionate people who believe in the technologies. Encouraging the collective brainpower of the many — anyone can participate regardless of affiliation — to overcome an industry's toughest challenges together. Collaborative development not only makes individuals smarter; companies benefit from a much larger R&D effort, exposure to new tools and development practices, and a shorter product development cycle/faster time to market. 5-Technical Superiority Open source ERP solutions are preferred by the big companies because they are easier to upgrade when customizations are properly implemented. Upgrades can be done more often without disruption of the production system. In this way companies using open source ERP solutions are always one step ahead of their competitors, and are harvesting the power of the latest technologies and innovations. Whereas closed source ERP solutions are slower to change and lack innovation. 6- Freedom Unlike with proprietary solution, using an open source ERP will give you complete access to its source content/code. You are the owner of the system and need not be dependent on your service provider. You can implement the software yourself in any way you want(and it is capable), or “opt” to hire a service provider(it is not compulsory). 7- Quality The code quality of open source software are of better. It is not about the money you pay to the developers but more about the passion of the developers building the software. Also more developers work on the software over a long period of time, making the code quality higher than proprietary software. Furthermore, the competition between the developers of open source software leads to the improvement of the overall quality. Just think how Chrome and FireFox are ahead of Internet Explorer and Safari. 8- Frequent Updates No software ever created was made perfectly. There are always improvements that can be made. Plus, as time flows, tastes as well as requirements change and to meet up with them everything must be up-to-date. Open source ERPs manage this wonderfully and you will be amazed how frequently updates are available, all fixing bugs and providing new enhancements and features. Odoo ERP and CRM solution is a notable example; it climbed from an ordinary piece of freeware to an incomparable all-in-one business solution. 9- Audit-ability While using a closed source ERP solution or any closed source software in general, the vendor will force you to them when it comes to questions of quality, security, flexibility, etc. also most of the time you will be deprived of the source code. While using any open source ERP solutions, such problems are unheard of. You get complete access to the source code and understand how the software functions. Also, as mentioned above, many experienced developers also can take a look at the piece of software and provide fair criticism which will be helpful for you to choose the software. 10- Open Source ERP Solutions Migrates Risks Another, reason why big companies use open source ERP Solutions, is because they reduce dependence on a single or multiple vendors, and in this way they may reduce business risk. Open source ERP Solution providers like VIENNA Advantage, allow you to integrate apps and modules from different vendors in a way that will increase the overall productivity of your daily operations. The advantage of choosing open source ERP Solutions against the proprietary ERP Solutions is that you own the system and its full source content. There is no lock-in or dependency on the vendor, and you are freer on how you are going to implement and modify the software. You can do this all by yourself or hire an ERP provider. 11- Simple license management When you use open source software, you would no longer need to worry about licenses. Open source software enables you to install it several times and also use it from any location. You will be free from monitoring, tracking or counting license compliance. 12- No vendor lock-in IT managers in organizations face constant frustration when dealing with vendor lock-ins'. Lack of portability, expensive license fees and inability to customize software are some of the other disadvantages. Using open source software gives you more freedom and you can effectively address all these disadvantages. CONCLUSIONS In a nutshell,companies in Pakistan are shifting toward Open Source ERP Solution because if your primary requirements involve customizability, cost reduction, and freedom then there can't be a better answer to go for an open source ERP for your organization.